Immunohaematology : our know-how
DIAGAST has been drawing its know-how and the foundations of its mission for decades from its transfusion origins. In a process of security and dissemination of biological knowledge, its evolution is based on the wealth and discoveries of a specific science: immuno-hematology.
A biological reality
We’re all different …
This apparent evidence is the result of a complex reality, mixing of hereditary characteristics and individual courses. From biological phenomenon in which the evolution and adaptation of species plays a crucial role, the blood groups are logically a part of these heritages, both similar and different…
Thus, since their discovery and the promotion of blood transfusion, the blood group’s finest characterization has made it possible to secure the process, from donor to patient.
Why does Immunohaematology exist?
For decades, DIAGAST has built its know-how and found the reasons of its mission from its transfusion service origin. Its dynamic evolution is based on the discoveries of a specific science: immunohaematology.
Literally, the Blood groups are people’s classifications by the biological characteristics of transfusable tissues such as red blood cells and plasma. We focus on the constituent molecules of blood donors and potential recipients, and thus prevent and control biological reactions during transfusion. Likewise, the study of fetomaternal compatibility and will help to prevent side reactions
What are we going to watch in general?
Immunohaematology owes its development to the blood transfusion one. Blood groups are based on biological differences, revealed by specific tools of the in vitro medical diagnostic. These biochemical features, which are specific to people groups for the most part or to individuals if they are analyzed in finest detail, are resulting from the activity of enzymes or complex systems. These are structural motifs of proteins or sugars associated or not with lipids, especially present on the surface of red blood cells, and able of causing serious immune reactions.
It is therefore the result of biological processes specific to individuals that will be examined by diagnostic tools, making it possible to prevent from any form of secondary reaction, even much later.
And more specifically for the transfusion of concentrated red blood cell bags?
We usually distinguish the groups of individuals A, B, AB and O, as well as the Rhesus D + or Rhesus D – structures. These considerations are due to the gravity of the incompatibilities involved.
There are other characteristics besides ABO grouping, such as Rhesus subgroups or the examination of extended phenotype. These determinations allow transfusion procedures to be adapted as closely as possible to the patient and guarantee optimal safety by preventing immediate reactions or longer-term undesirable immunizations.
What is the scientific proposition of DIAGAST?
DIAGAST has this expertise which enables it to distinguish fine biological features by standardizing diagnostic IVD tools (eg production of anti-A or Anti-B monoclonal antibodies), or by making characterized control cells suspensions available to laboratories.
In general, immunological reactions are implemented in vitro in order to correctly classify donors and recipients and ensure their inter-individual transfusion compatibility, as Landsteiner initiated in 1901 during the nobelized discovery of ABC blood groups (later renamed ABO). These techniques are frequently automatized.
Some minor group antigens can also be explored with DIAGAST’s reagents if necessary.
Completed today by rapid advances in genetics and associated with particular predispositions to different pathologies, that are increasingly identified, its future will be linked to the development of personalized medicine and could be integrated into the field tissue compatibilities.
What else would it be useful to do more?
Today, it is essential to promote the practice of transfusion everywhere if needed, even if the risks may persist:
– When perfect compatibility is not available
– When logistical considerations becomes the hardest issue, due to the size of the territories or the complexity of the means of communication in certain countries.
DIAGAST public Heath mission.
The players in immunohaematology meet these challenges by making blood group determinations more reliable by using Grouping, Cross-Matching and Ultimate Transfusion Control techniques. Our objective is to allow hospital hemovigilance managers and blood banks to work optimally.
DIAGAST mission is to ensure the safety of this system and anticipates its evolutions as closely as possible to molecular and genetic considerations. The capacity for innovation and the cellular and intellectual technological heritage of the company make this mission possible.